dr Gordana Stojaković, 08.11.2014.

The Women’s Antifascist Front of Vojvodina (1942-1944) – The War Experiences

 

International Conference in Sarajevo June 7th and 8th 2014. The place of women in war 1914-2014.

(http://womeninwar.org/wordpress/commemorating-women-war-in-sarajevo-1914-2014/)

The Women’s Antifascist Front (AFŽ) of Yugoslavia (1942-1953) was established in 1942 during World War II within the People`s Liberation Struggle (NOB). The AFŽ became the women’s mass organization during World War II and continued it’s activities afterwards. The women in Yugoslavia during the World War II largely contributed to general affirmation of women and the high level of women’s rights in the socialist Yugoslavia.

The AFŽ is not an unambiguous phenomenon.  In various parts of Yugoslavia the organizations had different development paths and different performance. It was the result of differentiation of Yugoslav space in terms of economic and cultural development, and the traditions that have been heavily influenced by various religions. Therefore for this analysis I am drawing on my own previous work[1]limited tothe results of researchon the AFŽofVojvodina.

Focus will be on the AFŽ`s operation in Srem – which is a part of Vojvodina that was the focal point of the uprising and armed struggle against the fascists. The focus will be on the gender aspect of the women`s organizing in time of the man dominance in the NOB.

Key words:  AFŽ, NOB, Srem, Serbia, Vojvodina, women’s organization, women in the war

 

The AFŽ of Vojvodina was a part of the People`s Liberation Struggle    

There is two centuries long tradition of women’s struggle for their rights in Vojvodina (Stojaković 2001). In the early 20th centuries the feminist women’s organizations argued for women’s rights, including political. The feminist organizations were trying to change the situation of women within the patriarchy (Atanasijević 1932: 122). On the other side, the communist women fought to change the socio-political system, against capitalism. For the communists the women’s issue was an integral part of the working class struggle which should be resolved by the revolution (Božinović 1996, 127). The Yugoslav Communist Party (KPJ) shortly before World War II adopted the platform on the women’s issues where in addition to full legal equality between women and men separated and special measures to protect the mother and child. This plan was implemented yet during the NOB when women in Vojvodina were elected to the People’s Liberation Committees (NOO)[2]. In addition, a number of  the “old”[3] communist women served as Political Commissar or Deputy Political Commissar in the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV[4]) (Stojaković 2002). It was also Judita Alargić`s experience. She was a worker and communist before the World War II. During the NOB she became the Political Commissar of the Second Proletarian Brigade (Stojaković 2007). She was the only representative of women in Vojvodina at the First National AFŽ Conference in Bosanski Petrovac (1942).

The World War II in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia began in April 1941. The “Blitz Krieg” ended in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia`s capitulation, and its occupation by the Axis Powers (Germany and Italy) and their allies. Vojvodina[5] was occupied by the following fascist forces: Germany – Banat, Hungary – Bačka, and the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) – Srem. The Provincial Committee (PK) KPJ for Vojvodina, in June 1941 sent the Proclamation to the Vojvodina`s nations that meant launching an armed struggle against the fascists – the invaders. The Proclamation was begun with the following sentences:

 The nations of Vojvodina! Our beautiful Vojvodina tore into three parts, our flat fields, drenched in the centuries old sweat still stomping beastly paws of the German, Hungarian and ustaša[6] ruthless tyrants...[7] 

In Banat several partisan detachments was established in 1941 but the fascist offensive  the same year forced these units to move in Srem to the Fruška gora, the only forested and hilly area in Vojvodina (Petranović 1981: 253-254). There were three partisan detachments and a company in 1942 in Srem with about 1,000 partisans. The Germans, ustaša and domobran[8] launched an offensive in the summer 1942 to crush the armed resistance in Srem. During the offensive, which had the character of retaliation, 6,000 people were killed but the majority of the partisans forces were not destroyed (Petranović 1981: 288). The partisans managed to cross into Eastern Bosnia. The Partisans from Vojvodina and from Eastern Bosnia then formed the First and the Second Vojvodina Brigade.

Srem was the supply base for these brigades in food, materials and new fighters as well as for the care of wounded partisans. On the liberated territories of Srem during 1943 and 1944 the NOO intensively formed as well as the AFŽ, the USAOJ[9] and the SKOJ[10] organisations.  The NOO were the beginnings of the new authorities who were concerned with the everyday life, supply and replenishment of the partisan detachments. Women were involved mostly in the supply committees and in the boards for culture and care for the wounded. But there was a time when women in Srem were assumed almost all the functions of government mostly in the occupied territories, especially after the fascist offensive (Kovačević 1984: 102; Stojaković 2007). This was primarily a consequence of the dramatic circumstances and then in relation with the trust towards women and in accordance with the proclaimed equality of women.

On the liberated territories in Srem  the schools and the hospitals were working and the newspapers Slobodna Vojvodina[11], Vojvođanka u borbi[12] and Glas omladine[13] were printed. In October 1944. Novi Sad was liberated and Sremski front was formed. The NOV and the Red Army were coordinated in the final battles for the liberation of Yugoslavia. The trench battles on the Sremski front were heavy. There were many dead and wounded NOV fighters so the AFŽ Srem directed all power to help soldiers on the Front line and behind. In April 1945 the Sremski front was breached. The Victory Day is celebrated in Europe on May 9, but in Yugoslavia, the World War II was waged by the 15th of May 1945. The Germans and their fascist allies, for the crimes they were committed, fought to surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the NOV and the Red Army.

The first organized women`s group that in various ways assisted the armed uprising were formed in Srem in early 1942. Initially, these groups were called: the Women`s Committee for Frontline Help, the Anti-Fascist Women`s Committee, but after the First National AFŽ Conference in Bosanski Petrovac (1942) uniquely name was established – The Women’s Antifascist Front. In the document “Guidelines for the organizing women in the People`s Liberation Struggle – Let us create the Women’s Antifascist Front in all places” the OK[14] KPJ for Srem in 1942  invited women and girls from all social classes and nationalities to join the AFŽ and contribute to the fight against the fascism (Kovačević 1984: 95).

The AFŽ organizations were established according to the territorial principle. There were the mesni [15](towns and villages) committees, the sreski [16] (several towns and villages) committees, the okružni[17] (several sreski) committees. The Provincial initiative Committee AFŽ of Vojvodina was established in 1943. There were between 3 and 9 members in the MO AFŽ.  Women of the MO AFŽ that have shown courage, resourcefulness, dedication were chosen for members of the higher AFŽ Committees or the KPJ[18].  The Women members of the KPJ or the SKOJ were responsible for political work with the women in the AFŽ, but they often were at the high positions in the AFŽ. Where there was no MO AFŽ one of the female members of the KPJ assumed the AFŽ duties for that area. The high position of women members of the KPJ and the SKOJ in the AFŽ allowed that the organization functioned in accordance with the objectives and tasks of the KPJ (Mali 1984: 133). Among the women members of the KPJ who were in high position in the Provincial Committee (PO) AFŽ of Vojvodina significant role had Srbislava Kovačević (secret name, Marija). During and after the World War II she was the secretary[19] of the OO AFŽ of Srem and the PO AFŽ of Vojvodina also. She was the editor of the Vojvođanka u borbi newspaper.

By 1943 in Srem was formed “9 SO AFŽ with 16,843 members” (Sabo 1984: 28). This massiveness was the basis for the AFŽ reorganization in August 1943 by forming the separate OO organizations for the Eastern and the Western Srem. Several members of the AFŽ from the Eastern Srem were sent to the Western Srem to accelerate the creation of the AFŽ network in the Western Srem. PO AFŽ of Vojvodina initiated a more intensive local organizing committee AFŽ in Backa, Baranja[20] and Banat in September 1943. This action was entirely according to the instructions PK KPJ for Vojvodina.

The most of the AFŽ members in Srem were Serb. This confirmed the composition of the  OO AFŽ Conference for the Western Srem held in September 1943. Among the 250 women delegates were: “212 Serb, 18 Croat, 15 Rysuns, 2 Slovaks and 3 Slovens” (Kovačević, 1984: 117). They were representatives of the 8,000 women active in the AFŽ for the Western Srem. The same report about the delegates started with the information that in the NOO were 36 women, 12 in agricultural committees, 25 the cultural and educational boards, 250 in the NOV, and 50 women-couriers (Ibid. 117). The PK KPJ for Vojvodina was working on the inclusion of women and men of all nations in the NOB. Unlike other regions where the Serbian people organized armed resistance in Vojvodina there were no četnici[21].

 

AFŽ between the KPJ directives and the needs of everyday life 

In the period between 1942 and 1944, women participated in the NOB by carrying arms as a part of the resistance or by serving as couriers, doctors, nurses, and performing other kinds of activities. During 1943 and 1944 the campaigns of collecting food, clothes, shoes, medical and other materials for the NOV were organized.  In these actions, the AFŽ organization had the most important role. The campaigns have started as contest between lower AFŽ committees in Srem. The end of the competition, where opportunities allowed, were celebrated by AFŽ meetings and conferences. About AFŽ members motivation there was the note that only in one action in and around Irig, a little town in Fruška gora,  were collected: “96 pieces of soap, 15 kg of flour, 560 kg of dough for cooking, 550 kg of potatoes, 405 kg of beans, 433 kg onions, 2kg of bacon, 4 kg of sugar … “(Stojaković 2007). But the most famous action was known as The Big Transport[22] – delivering food, shoes, clothes for partisan fighters in Bosnia in 1943. The Big Transport was transferred by young men and women “through 1000 … who were recruited to fill the First and Second Vojvodina brigade in the Eastern Bosnia. Then the people from Srem were collected 100 cars[23] with food, medical supplies, clothing, shoes …” (Nađ 1984: 591-592).

The AFŽ members were also active in the People’s Liberation Committees (NOO). In some Fruska gora`s villages after the great fascist offensive in the Autumn 1942. only women, old people and children were remained. The grown men were in the partisan formations or in the concentration camps and many were killed. In these villages, “women held all the People`s Liberation Organizations (NOO)” (Kovačević, 1984: 102). The NOO`s operational tasks, imposed by everyday life and the partisans combat formations needs, were clear. The tasks that women in the AFŽ and in the NOO had were not only from the arsenal of care and concern for the residences and the partisans. Women often organized village guards, planting and harvesting, literacy courses, celebrations and events. The program of the AFŽ during the World War II was subordinate to the armed struggle against the fascists but the operating modes were adapted to the membership and to the situation on the ground.

During World War II women from Srem took over the responsibility for the daily lives of their families, villages and cities. The largest part of the AFŽ’s membership didn`t carry the weapons, but their activity has been linked with almost the same risk of death that the partisans fighters had.  This was also the case of Mileva Savić (conspiratorial name Olga) who was killed a few days after he took over the leadership OO AFŽ of Srem in May 1943 (Stojaković 2007). Women who were engaged in various tasks within the NOB and the AFŽ had the conspiratorial names. If some activists were arrested and tortured then there were possibilities that the identities of other members of the group would be preserved. Many women who were arrested by the fascists did not reveal their own identity, thus the members of their own families were saved from reprisals.

In Srem, based on the AFŽ members and leaders data it is clear that many were housewives without any work experience besides the kitchen and farming. This was also Mira Milosevic`[24]s case. She was a housewife from Šuljam, a little village in Srem. From May 1943 she was the President of the OO AFŽ of Srem and from August 1943 the President of the PO AFŽ of Vojvodina (Stojaković 2007). In wartime a life experience of rural women was valuable because that was the environment that has been a focal point of resistance. When the War ended a teacher, Ruža Tadić has replaced Mira Milosevic on the PO AFŽ`s presidental position (Stojaković 2007). The woman teachers during the World War II, and especially afterword, opened up a significant goal of the AFŽ: educational process for women. Socialism could not have build by the political illiterate and uneducated women`s masses. It was necessary that men and women elevated to the level of “historical production“[25] (Tomšič Zora avgust-septembar 1948: 1). Only the “new socialist man” (Tomšič Zora, januar 1948: 9-10) which included the woman, was able to create a new, more just society. Therefore, it was important that political work among the women start yet during the wartime. It was one of the most important AFŽ`s roles.

The KPJ was supported the AFŽ as controlled women’s organization because it was supposed to remedied women`s centuries-old backwardness and the women`s inferiority in the society. Women are more easily tied with AFŽ, perceiving it as close and as their separate organization. They felt security to speak openly about the problems and to seek clarifications on unclear issues and concepts.  The educational work among the women began during the wartime with the literacy courses and the reading-classes[26]. The Reading classes at the same time were a form of an important political activity among women.  That was effective way of transmitting political messages to a group of women who were not educated enough. The messages were transmitted by a woman facilitator of the reading classes, usually a member of the KPJ or the SKOJ. The participants of the reading classes discussed and asked questions without fear of ridicule.

The members of the AFŽ`s higher committees usually attended the political courses intensified in 1943, then continued after the wartime. That was the process of creating politically educated women. One of the courses was held in the free territory of Srem in August 1943. The course content was designed by the secretary of the PK KPJ for Vojvodina, Jovan Veselinov (Žarko). The lecturers were communist members of the PO AFŽ of Vojvodina.  Among them the prominent role had Srbislava Kovačević (Marija) and Dušanka Jovanović (Branka). The content of the course included the following topics: the development of the society  (the slavery, the feudalism, the capitalism, the socialism … ), women throughout the history (the life of women in the patriarchy, causes of women`s servitude, whether the capitalism paved the way for the women`s liberation, what the socialism gives to the woman. ..) , the peasant question (the position of the peasantry under the capitalism, the relations between the proletariat and the peasantry , what the October Revolution gave to the Soviet peasants … ) , the national issue (appearance and signs of the nation, the working class and the national question . ..) , about the fascism (what is the fascism and why it occurs, what is the meaning of ” the racial theory“ and the ” the new order ” in Europe, who makes the center of the revolution and the counterrevolution … ), the war against fascism and the role of USSR in it (what enables collaboration between USSR, England and America, the invincibility of the Red Army… ), the NOB (genesis of Yugoslavia and the causes of its collapsed after the fascists attack, who invited people to fight against the fascist and whether the uprising wave swept the whole country alike, the occupiers and  their goals … ), the role of women in the NOB (what is fascism brought the women, was there in Yugoslavia an anti-fascist women`s movement before the World War II, why the AFŽ was created, the forms of the women`s  struggle  in the war), the organizational structure  of the AFŽ (the aims and the objectives, relation to the NOO) (Stojakovic 2007) .

Initially the course was designed for the members of the lower AFŽ committees. After one year of experience in February 1944 Srbislava Kovačević (Marija) informed Jovan Veselinov (Žarko) that the questions were too difficult for members of the lower AFŽ committees (Stojakovic 2007). She suggested that in the future this questions should be use for the OO AFŽ`s leaders. Further political work in the AFŽ was continued through two-stage model of political education. It was a necessary compromise between the KPJ directives and possibilities of the AFŽ membership.

The process of creating and developing of the AFŽ moved on different routes that were not always in the accordance with the KPJ directives. This was confirmed by a letter written by Jovan Veselinov (Žarko), the secretary of the PK KPJ for Vojvodina to all KPJ organizations and to the PO AFŽ of Vojvodina in 1944. Veselinov claimed that in the AFŽ there was a dangerous tendency of independence towards a separate women’s organization (Stojakovic 2007). The lower AFŽ committees, as Veselinov claimed, were responsible to the higher AFŽ committees but not to the local new government.

For Veselinov women in the AFŽ, but also in the KPJ, could not be the representatives of woman of these organizations, but their work must be an integral part of the organization to which they belong and of the new government, under the unified KPJ management (Stojaković 2012: 43). Mitra Mitrović[27] was justify in 1944. the existence and specificity of the AFŽ through the fact that women were on the very subordinate position in society, and that they need a separate women’s organization for faster integration in the social and the political life (Ibid 43-44).  Mitrović didnt`s see  the AFŽ  as an organization that deals exclusively with the woman`s  issue, but rather as the movement that brought together women to fight against the fascists (Ibid., 43-44). She noted that women in Yugoslavia gained political and civil rights by the Declaration from the Second  Session of the Anti-Fascist  Council of National Liberation  of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1943, and so as a new entity entered into the public space.

 

The AFŽ was the organization that the women believed in

The dramatic wartime circumstances have produced the situation where women step forward in the area of political and the warrior actions. It was also in line with the KPJ proclaimed ideological plan of the women`s emancipation. But no one could predict how the process of women exiting from the family circle will flow. It happened that the space of everyday life, that the men left for the dramatic war situation, more quickly and massively become the space of gained women’s rights and responsibilities, before any written law about it. That is why the women partisans and members of the AFŽ testified that the women of Yugoslavia won their own rights (Ida Sabo according to Stojaković 2007)[28].  The women`s rights are not simple assigned by the victory of one ideology but won through the bloody battles. Women have become aware of their own capabilities in the most difficult circumstances so that return to the old social relationship was not easily possible.

Entry into the public sphere within the AFŽ was made in the way that women have become an interest and the target group. The women`s interests of was peace, prosperity, more just society and a future for their children. The objective of the KPJ was to actively involve women`s masses through the AFŽ – as a part of the anti-fascist struggle – in the battle against fascism and in the creation of a new socialist society. Through the massive participation of women in the anti-fascist struggle the AFŽ has grown into a strong, organized organization in which women believed and to which woman were strongly tied.

Why was the issue of control of the women`s organized work set very early? Women first understand those interests that were the general welfare of their families, villages and cities, their children and descendants. This was not always matched to the tasks that the KPJ prescribed for all the anti-fascist mass organizations. The AFŽ members could not arguably follow every dictate of the KPJ, as the communist women have done. Most of the AFŽ membership was turned to daily life, the rhythm of planting-harvesting, immediate environment, and then to the impact of tradition. At the same time, the merits of the AFŽ members in the fight against fascism were not in dispute. The fact is that women in Srem were often decisive power of the NOB. The anti-fascist struggle or construction of the socialism could not be conducted without the woman`s masses therefore the KPJ was needed to construct framework for the preferred measure of women’s activism.

After the World War II as the new voters women in Yugoslavia will have an important, decisive influence on the prevalence of the National Front list. However, the KPJ has never allowed the AFŽ to be an independent organization. The AFŽ has always been a part of something[29], after the wartime it was part of the National Front with special responsibilities that always were primarily dictated by the political moment. The AFŽ will be terminated by a decision the KPJ[30] in 1953. This was the period when Yugoslavia entered a new phase of social and economic development. It will be shown that this was a preponderance of the patriarchy, not a decision made by AFŽ membership. With this decision the AFŽ`s communist leadership agreed, without objection (Stojaković 2002).

The AFŽ was the most massive women’s organization in the history of the countries that were part of the socialist Yugoslavia. In the women`s memory the AFŽ would be remember as a powerful, popular organizations, school for the hundreds of thousands of women who have learned the new professions and to fight against illiteracy, backwardness, superstition …  It was a sort of the safe house where women gained the knowledge and support for the 7 miles steps on the social ladder of the new socialist society. By this experience of the AFŽ today is more current than ever.

 

Literature

Atanasijević Ksenija,”Pravo glasa žena u ideologiji Žen. (skog) pokreta,” Ženski pokret no. 9. (1932), 122.

Atanasijević Ksenija, “Položaj žene u našem javnom životu” in Etika feminizma ed. Ljiljana Vuletić (Beograd: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji, 2008)

Božinović Neda, Žensko pitanje u Srbiji u XIX i XX veku (Beograd: Devedesetčetvrta, 1996).

Kabiljo Anica, “Okružna konferencja AFŽ za zapadni Srem u Moroviću 25. septembra 1944.” in: Žene Vojvodine u ratu i revoluciji 1941-1945 (Novi Sad: Intitut za istoriju 1984), 797.

Kovačević Srbislava, “Antifašistički front žena u Vojvodini” in: Žene Vojvodine u ratu i revoluciji 1941-1945 (Novi Sad: Institut za istoriju 1984), 93-127.

Mali, Milan, “Istorijsko mesto i značaj stvaranja i delatnosti pokrajinske organizacije AFŽ-a” in: Žene Vojvodine u ratu i revoluciji 1941-1945 (Novi Sad: Institut za istoriju 1984), 127-141.

Nađ Dušanka, “Veliki transport” in:  Žene Vojvodine u ratu i revoluciji 1941-1945 ( Novi Sad: Institut za istoriju 1984), 591-597.

“Proglas PK KPJ Vojvodine – Narodima Vojvodine” in Vojvodina u borbi (Novi Sad: Savez udruženja boraca Narodnooslobodilačkog rata SR Srbije/ Predsedništvo AP Vojvodine 1963), 252.

Sabo Ida, “Učešće žna Vojvodine u revolucionarnom radničkom pokretu i socijalistuičkoj revoluciji” in: Žene Vojvodine u ratu i revoluciji 1941-1945 (Novi Sad: Institut za istoriju 1984) 9-37.

Stojaković Gordana,ed. Znamenite žene Novog Sada I. (Novi Sad: Futura publikacije, 2001).

Stojaković Gordana, ed. Neda-jedna biografija (Novi Sad: Futura publikacije, 2002).

Stojaković Gordana, CD-AFŽ Vojvodine 1942-1953 (Novi Sad, 2007) ISBN 978-86-909833-0-8.

Stojaković  Gordana,  “Skica za potret: Antifašistički front žena Vojvodine 1942-1953” in: Partizanke, žene u Narodnooslobodilačkoj borbi, ed. Daško Milinović and Zoran Petakov (Novi Sad: Cenzura, 2011), 13-38. Stojaković Gordana,  Rodna perspektiva u novinama Antifašističkog fronta žena (1945-1953) (Novi Sad: Zavod za ravnopravnost polova, 2012).

Tomšič Vida, “Masovni politički rad među ženama – jedan od najvažnijih zadataka AFŽ-a” Zora,  januar (1948): 9-10.

Tomšič Vida, “Partija je pokazala ženama pravilan put njihove borbe”, Zora, avgust-septembar (1948): 1-3.

[1] Stojaković, CD- AFŽ Vojvodine (1942-1953) (Novi Sad 2007). Stojaković, “Skica za potret: Antifašistički front žena Vojvodine 1942-1953” in: Partizanke, žene u Narodnooslobodilačkoj borbi, ed. Daško Milinović and Zoran Petakov (Novi Sad: Cenzura, 2011), 13-38. Stojaković, Rodna perspektiva u novinama Antifašističkog fronta žena (1945-1953) (Novi Sad: Zavod za ravnopravnost polova, 2012).

 

[2] The authorities of the new government.

[3] Old – according to the length of membership in the KPJ. That was Neda Božinović`s experience. She participated in the NOV both as a partisan and a political activist and achieved the rank of a Major in the NOV. In Yugoslavia during the World War II a longer or shorter time 100 000 women were in the combat units or military background authorities. One-fifth of them got the officer or NCO ranks and 3 344 received Partisans` Memorial Medal 1941 (meaning that they were in NOB from the beginning), 91 women received Order of National Hero and 33 of them were fighting in Serbia See: Božinović Žensko pitanje u Srbiji u XIX i XX veku, 146. Neda Božinović was after the liberation  the Vice President of Veterans` Association of Yugoslavia.

[4] Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije

[5] Vojvodina is the northern province of the Republic of Serbia. It is composed of the three regions: Banat, Bačka and Srem.

[6] Ustaše –the cruelest military formation of the NDH. They came to power with the German occupation of Jugoslavia.

[7] Narodi Vojvodine! Našu divnu Vojvodinu rasparčali su na tri dela, naša ravna polja, natopljena vekovnim znojem i dalje gazi zverska šapa nemačkih, mađarskih i ustaških silnika.. (Proglas… Vojvodina u borbi 1963: 252).

[8] Domobrani –the military formation of the NDH.

[9] The Alliance of Yugoslav Antifascist Youth

[10] The Union of Yugoslav Communist Youth

[11] The Free Vojvodina                                                                             

[12] The Vojvodina Women in Combat (1944).

[13] The Voice of the Youth

[14] Okružni komitet. Okrug is  the District e.g. Srem is the District, a subdivision of the Province of Vojvodina.

[15] Mesni odbor (MO).

[16] Sreski odbor (SO).

[17] Okružni odbor (OO).

[18] This was the case with Mira Milosevic housewife, later President of the PO AFŽ of Vojvodina (Stojaković 2007).

[19] That not mean the leading position as in the KPJ, but an important organizational and administrative positions. The leading positions in AFŽ was the presidental position.

[20] Baranja is in Croatia.

[21] The četnici collaborated with the German and Italian forces and after a very short period at the beginning of the World War II actively fought against the partisans.

[22] Veliki transport

[23] The cars were drawn by horses and oxen.

[24] Mira Milošević was first the partisan fighter. She was succeeded Mileva Savić-Olga on the presidential position of the OO AFŽ of Srem.

[25] Istorijsko stvaralaštvo.

[26] Čitalački časovi.

[27] Mitra Mitrovic was the communist, one of the most important figures in the NOB and for the creation of the Socialist Yugoslavia.

[28] “To the Yugoslav women nobody gave equality but they have won it by their participation in the NOB, by mass participation – with the guns in their hands… Around 620 thousand women took an active part in the NOB, that means in the cities also, and I have to say that it was far more difficult to be in the cities than in the partisan units. I have experienced both and I was relieved when I went to the partisan units” (Stojaković 2007).

“Jugoslovenskim ženama niko nije poklonio ravnopravnost već su one svojim učešćem u NOB, i to masovnim učešćem – sa oružjem u ruci, izborile…Oko 620 hiljada žena je aktivno učestvovalo u borbi, to znači i u gradovima, i moram da kažem da je bilo daleko teže biti u gradovima nego u partizanskim jedinicama. Iskusila sam i jedno i drugo i odahnula sam kada sam otišla u partizanske jedinice“ (Stojaković 2007).

[29] Some organizations, or some objectives, or the political situations.

[30] KPJ was SKJ (the Yugoslav Communists League) after 1953.